glossary

詞彙對照表

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Open Data 開放資料能夠應用在各類型的目的上,更詳細的資訊請參考opendefinition.org.

Machine-readable 所謂的機器可讀取的檔案格式意味著它們的數據能夠輕易的被電腦程式擷取。而PDF文件並不是機器可讀取的格式。電腦可以清楚的顯示PDF中的文字,但是在解讀文字以外的內容時,卻是非常的困難的。

Connectivity 網路連線環境指的是社群連接上網路的能力,尤其是有沒有辦法瀏覽網站。

BitTorrent BitTorrent 是一個目前政策決策者越來越熟習的系統,因為這個系統的使用與侵犯版權等相關問題常常被放在一起提到。BitTorrent 使用一種稱為 torrents 的檔案,然後在運作上可以將檔案散佈的資源分散平均分配到每個讀取該檔案的使用者身上。這樣一來,就算對資料檔案的要求提高,也可避免伺服器出現頻寬不足的狀況,因為越多人下載檔案,就表示越多人同時也在分享。

DAP

參閱 Data Access Protocol.

Data Access Protocol 一個提供認證機制,允許外部連線到資料庫並可避免系統產生超載的存取協定。

Attribution License

A license that requires that the original source of the licensed material is cited (attributed).

Data protection legislation

Data protection legislation is not about protecting the data, but about protecting the right of citizens to live without fear that information about their private lives might become public. The law protects privacy (such as information about a person’s economic status, health and political position) and other rights such as the right to freedom of movement and assembly. For example, in Finland a travel card system was used to record all instances when the card was shown to the reader machine on different public transport lines. This raised a debate from the perspective of freedom of movement and the travel card data collection was abandoned based on the data protection legislation.

PSI

參閱 Public Sector Information.

Public Sector Information

Information collected or controlled by the public sector.

API

參閱 Application Programming Interface.

Application Programming Interface

A way computer programs talk to one another. Can be understood in terms of how a programmer sends instructions between programs.

Web API

一個設計來網路上使用的 API

Share-alike License

A license that requires users of a work to provide the content under the same or similar conditions as the original.

Public domain

No copyright exists over the work. Does not exist in all jurisdictions.

資料庫 rights

A right to prevent others from extracting and reusing content from a database. Exists mainly in European jurisdictions.

Copyright

A right for the creators of creative works to restrict others’ use of those works. An owner of copyright is entitled to determine how others may use that work.

Re-use

將資料內容使用在他建立時原本預定的範圍之外

Open standards

Generally understood as technical standards which are free from licencing restrictions. Can also be interpreted to mean standards which are developed in a vendor-neutral manner.

Anonymization

參閱 Anonymisation.

Anonymisation

The process of adapting data so that individuals cannot be identified from it.

IP rights

參閱 Intellectual property rights.

Intellectual property rights

Monopolies granted to individuals for intellectual creations.

AR

參閱 Information Asset Register.

IAR

參閱 Information Asset Register.

EU

歐盟

EU PSI Directive 公部門資訊重新使用指令 (The Directive on the re-use of public sector information) , 2003/98/EC. “處理的是公部門單位如何加強他們對資訊資源的重新使用” Legislative Actions - PSI Directive<http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/psi/actions_eu/policy_actions/index_en.htm>

Information Asset Register

IARs are registers specifically set up to capture and organise meta-data about the vast quantities of information held by government departments and agencies. A comprehensive IAR includes databases, old sets of files, recent electronic files, collections of statistics, research and so forth.

The EU PSI Directive recognises the importance of asset registers for prospective re-users of public information. It requires member states to provide lists, portals, or something similar. It states:

Tools that help potential re-users to find documents available
for re-use and the conditions for re-use can facilitate
considerably the cross-border use of public sector documents.
Member States should therefore ensure that practical arrangements
are in place that help re-users in their search for documents
available for reuse. Assets lists, accessible preferably online,
of main documents (documents that are extensively re-used or
that have the potential to be extensively re-used), and portal
sites that are linked to decentralised assets lists are examples
of such practical arrangements.

IARs can be developed in different ways. Government departments can develop their own IARs and these can be linked to national IARs. IARs can include information which is held by public bodies but which has not yet been – and maybe will not be – proactively published. Hence they allow members of the public to identify information which exists and which can be requested.

For the public to make use of these IARs, it is important that any registers of information held should be as complete as possible in order to be able to have confidence that documents can be found. The incompleteness of some registers is a significant problem as it creates a degree of unreliability which may discourage some from using the registers to search for information.

It is essential that the metadata in the IARs should be comprehensive so that search engines can function effectively. In the spirit of open government data, public bodies should make their IARs available to the general public as raw data under an open license so that civic hackers can make use of the data, for example by building search engines and user interfaces.

Open Government Data

Open data produced by the government. This is generally accepted to be data gathered during the course of business as usual activities which do not identify individuals or breach commercial sensitivity. Open government data is a subset of Public Sector Information, which is broader in scope. See http://opengovernmentdata.org for details.

Tab-separated values Tab-separated values (TSV - 使用 TAB 鍵來區隔資料欄位) 是一種在分享表格類型資料時常會使用到的文字檔案格式。這種檔案格式極為簡易並具有高度的 {term:machine-readable} (機器可讀性)。