glossary

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Open Data 开放数据可以被用作各种用途。更多的细节可以在opendefiniton.org阅读。

Machine-readable 机器可阅读的文件格式允许计算机程序方便得自动抓取其中的数据。PDF 文档不是机器可读的。计算机可以将文本展现的很漂亮但是却很难理解文本的上下文。

Connectivity 网络连接性指的是访问互联网尤其是万维网的能力。

BitTorrent BitTorrent 是一个分布式下载协议。所有参与文件下载的电脑之间都同时参与传输文件。这使得BitTorrent与传统的从同一个源下载文件的方式不同,而是使人们互相从对方处下载所需的部分。

DAP

参见 {term:数据访问性协议}

Data Access Protocol 这个系统允许外来者访问数据而不会导致系统过载。

Attribution License 这个许可协议要求使用者必须引用原始的被授权的材料。

Data protection legislation 数据保护法案不仅是保护数据本身,还确保公民们不用为自己的隐私数据会被公开而担心。这个法案保护隐私(比如某个人的经济状况,健康状况或者政治倾向)以及诸如自由行动和集会等的权利。比如,芬兰的交通卡会在用户在不同公共交通线路上刷卡时记录信息。这就引起了关于自由行动的争论并最终导致交通卡收集的信息被数据保护法案所废弃。

PSI

参见{term:公共部门信息}

Public Sector Information

由公共部分收集或控制的信息

API

参见 {term:应用程序语言接口}

Application Programming Interface 这是一种使计算机程序可以和其他计算机程序通讯的方式。你可以将其理解为一种程序员在不同的程序间发送指令的方式。

Web API

API是被设计成通过网络工作的。

Share-alike License 这个许可协议要求作品使用者使用相同或类似的许可协议来重利用和分发这个作品。

Public domain

No copyright exists over the work. Does not exist in all jurisdictions.

Database rights 这个权利允许阻止他人从数据库取出数据并重利用。这条例主要在欧盟司法系统存在。

Copyright 创意工作的创造者有权利限制他人使用自己的作品。知识产权的所有者有权决定别人如何使用自己的作品。

Re-use

超出原预期的用途

Open standards 通常被认为是不受许可协议限制的标准。也可以被理解为中立的标准。 Anonymization See Anonymisation.

Anonymisation

这个对数据修改的过程使得个人无法从数据中被识别。

IP rights

参见 {term:知识产权}

Intellectual property rights

Monopolies granted to individuals for intellectual creations.

AR

参见 {term:信息资产记录}

IAR

参见 {term:信息资产记录}

EU

欧盟。

EU PSI Directive

The Directive on the re-use of public sector information, 2003/98/EC. “deals with the way public sector bodies should enhance re-use of their information resources.” Legislative Actions - PSI Directive

Information Asset Register

IARs are registers specifically set up to capture and organise meta-data about the vast quantities of information held by government departments and agencies. A comprehensive IAR includes databases, old sets of files, recent electronic files, collections of statistics, research and so forth.

The EU PSI Directive recognises the importance of asset registers for prospective re-users of public information. It requires member states to provide lists, portals, or something similar. It states:

Tools that help potential re-users to find documents available
for re-use and the conditions for re-use can facilitate
considerably the cross-border use of public sector documents.
Member States should therefore ensure that practical arrangements
are in place that help re-users in their search for documents
available for reuse. Assets lists, accessible preferably online,
of main documents (documents that are extensively re-used or
that have the potential to be extensively re-used), and portal
sites that are linked to decentralised assets lists are examples
of such practical arrangements.

IARs can be developed in different ways. Government departments can develop their own IARs and these can be linked to national IARs. IARs can include information which is held by public bodies but which has not yet been – and maybe will not be – proactively published. Hence they allow members of the public to identify information which exists and which can be requested.

For the public to make use of these IARs, it is important that any registers of information held should be as complete as possible in order to be able to have confidence that documents can be found. The incompleteness of some registers is a significant problem as it creates a degree of unreliability which may discourage some from using the registers to search for information.

在IAR中的元数据应该要全面这样搜索引擎才能有效工作。 对于开放的政府数据,公共部门应该提供原始的IAR数据并且采用开放许可协议,这样民间开发者就可以使用这些数据来开发搜索引擎和用户界面等。

Open Government Data 政府的{term:开放数据}。这通常被认为是那些不会标识个人或涉及商业敏感信息的,在普通商业活动中收集的数据。广义上而言,开放的政府数据是 {term:公共部门信息}的子集。 具体可见http://opengovernmentdata.org。

Tab-separated values TSV是一种常见的表单文件格式。它极其简单且{term:可被机器阅读}。